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One of the main components in plant cell culture media, micronutrients are responsible for providing explants with several important elements necessary for plant growth. Typically these elements are Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iodine (I), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mollybdenum (Mo) Sodium (Na), and Zinc (Zn). The optimum concentration of each nutrient for acheiving maximum growth rates varies considerably among species

Purpose of Micronutrients in Plant Cell Culture MediaEdit

Boron (B)Edit

Boron is a trace element commonly utilized in plant cell culture media to facilitate sugar processing. Too much or too little boron can have irreperable effect on the plantlets. Too much boron leads to plant death while too little leads to the deterioration of internal tissues. Boron can be so toxic to plants in excess that it is used as a component of some herbicides. [1] While specific formulations vary, typically boron is present in plant cell media in concentrations of 25-100 µM.[2]



Typically boric acid (H3BO3) is used as a boron source in plant cell culture media.

Chlorine (Cl)Edit

While it is unkown how exactly chlorine functions in plant cells it has been shown to be essential in stimulating photosynthesis in plants. Chlorine has also been shown to aid in root growth. Chlorine deficiency often exhibits in yellowing or dieing leaves. Despite this plants only require minute amounts of chlorine to prevent these symptoms and most plants do not appear to be affected adversely by excess amounts of chlorine. Some media formulations call for large amounts of chlorine. [3]



Typically calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O) is used as a chlorine source in plant cell culture media.

Cobalt (Co)Edit

Trace amounts of cobalt are required in media so that beneficial bacteria present in plants can syntesise the B12 Vitamin (C63H88CoN14O14P ). The B12 Vitamin which contains cobalt is essential to nitrogen fixation in plants. [4] While specific formulations vary, typically cobalt is present in plant cell media in concentrations of 0.1 µM.[5]



Typically cobalt chloride (CoCl2·6H2O) is used as a cobalt source in plant cell culture media.

Copper (Cu)Edit

While plant cell media only needs small amounts of copper to be present for healthy growth, insufficient copper levels can have extremely deleterious effects on plantlets. Insufficient amounts of copper can result in stunted growth, malformations, blotchy leaves, and die-back of young twigs. It is believed that copper is a necessary component in energy conversion within the plant. It has been shown that copper changes between its cuprous and cupric state at different stages of growth within plants.[6] While specific formulations vary, typically copper is present in plant cell media in concentrations of 0.1 µM.[7]



Typically cupric sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) is used as a copper source in plant cell culture media.

Iodine (I)Edit

Certain algae require iodine for healthy plant growth[8] and iodine is a common micronutrient in plant cell culture media. While specific formulations vary, typically iodine is present in plant cell media in concentrations of 5 µM.[9]




Typically potassium Iodide (KI) is used as an iodine source in plant cell culture media.

Iron (Fe)Edit

Iron is one of the more important macronutrients to ensuring healthy plant growth. Iron is used in clorphyll synthesis. As iron is reduced from its ferric state to its ferrous state it helps in energy conversion during photosynthesis and respiration. Plants with iron defeciency appear pale or yellowed. [10] Iron citrate and iron tartrate are occasionally used in plant tissue culture but the most common forms of iron come from chelated iron. While specific formulations vary, typically iron is presnt in plant cell media in concentrations of 1 µM.[11]




Typically ferric-sodium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (C10H12N2O8NaFe), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O), ferric citrate (C6H5O7Fe), and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3·xH2O) are used as iron sources in plat cell culture media.

Manganese (Mn)Edit

Manganese is one of the essential elemnts in the production of chloroplast membranes. Manganese deficiency typically exhibits as a yellow mottling of the leaves or through other chlorotic symptoms. [12] While specific formulations vary, typically manganese is presnt in plant cell media in concentrations of 20-90 µM.[13]




Typically manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O) is used as a manganese source in plant cell culture media.

Molybdenum (Mo)Edit

Molybdenum is thought to help in converting nitrogen into ammonia, as well as aiding in the nitrogen fixation process. It is required for normal plant growth but excess amounts of molybdenum can be very harmful to plants. [14] While specific formulations vary, typically molybdenmum is presnt in plant cell media in concentrations of 1 µM.[15]




Typically sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4·2H2O), also known as molybdic acid, is used as a molybdenum source in plant cell culture media.

Sodium (Na)Edit

Though not essential for cell growth sodium is often included as a micronutrient in plant cell media. Sodium is typically present in plant media as a by product of using sodium molybdayte and ferric-sodium EDTA as media components. Excess amounts of sodium can be harmful to plant growth. While specific formulations vary, typically sodium is presnt in plant cell media in concentrations of 4 µM or less.[16]




Typically sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4·2H2O), ferric-sodium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (C10H12N2O8NaFe) are used as sources of sodium in plant cell culture media.

Zinc (Zn)Edit

Like most trace elements in plant cell media large quantities of zinc is toxic to plants. In trace amounts, however, zinc plays an important role in clorophyll development, is an important element to many enzymes, and is used in the production of the auxin Indoleacetic Acid (IAA). [17] While specific formulations vary, typically zinc is presnt in plant cell media in concentrations of 5-30 µM.[18]




Typically zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O) is used as a source of zinc in plant cell culture media.

See AlsoEdit

Macronutrients

Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs)

Carbon/Energy Source

Vitamins

Amino Acids

Undefined Organic Supplements

Solidifying Agents or Support Systems

PhytoTech ProductsEdit

Boric Acid, Crystalline is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number B210

Boric Acid, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number B619

Calcium Chloride, Dihydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C135

Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C266

Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C625

Cobalt Chloride, Hexahydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C350

Cupric Sulfate, Pentahydrate, ACS Reagent is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C375

Cupric Sulfate, Pentahydrate, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number C628

Potassium Iodide is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number P840

Potassium Iodide, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number P640

Ferrous Sulfate, Heptahydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number F263

Ferrous Sulfate, Heptahydrate, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number F629

Ferrous Sulfate, Chelate Solution (100x) is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number F318

FeNa-Ethylene-Diamine Tetraacetic Acid is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number E676

Ferric Citrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number F352

Ferric Sulfate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number F388

Manganese Sulfate, Monohydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number M250

Manganese Sulfate, Monohydrate, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number M637

Sodium Molybdate, Dihydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number M651

Zinc Sulfate, Heptahydrate is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number Z101

Zinc Sulfate, Heptahydrate, USP Grade is available from PhytoTechnology Laboratories as Product Number Z669

ReferencesEdit

  1. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  2. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  3. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  4. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  5. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  6. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  7. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  8. Stern, Kingsley R. Introductory Plant Biology. Wm. C. Brown Communications, Inc. 1979
  9. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  10. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  11. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  12. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  13. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  14. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  15. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  16. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
  17. Kyte, Lydian. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 1987.
  18. Torres, Kenneth C. Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. 1989.
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